As we said last post, the CMB is the fossil of the Big Bang. When the CMB was formed, God’s act of creation was over. All matter and all energy were present in the universe. How long ago was that? When we know that, we’ll know the age of the universe.

First, we’ll need to know, on the atheist cosmology, how old the universe was when the CMB was formed. The number will be small compared to the total age of the universe. Then, simply by subtraction, the age of the universe will be determined. I don’t like subtracting numbers with wildly different orders of magnitude.

I’ve said before I accept the age of the universe to be 13.7 billion years [to 3 significant figures]. I still do, but it’s much more shaky than I thought when I wrote that. Before the 13.7 figure, the age was said to be 15 billion years. And the solar system was thought to be 5 billion years old. Then the estimates became 13.7 billion years for the universe and 4.567 billion years for the solar system. Notice that 13.7 divided by 15 = 5 divided by 4.567 [4.567 is really 4.56666]. I thought that indicated an agreement among authorities as to the value of the Hubble constant although I mentioned it didn’t seem perfect. I was wrong.

For this effort, I needed a value for the age of the universe to 7 significant figures [that takes it down to the 10’s of thousands of years column -you’ll see why I care in a moment]. I researched recent estimates of the Hubble constant. Harvard publishes them all. Rather than converging nicely in the recent past, the estimates varied a bunch. So much for a value accepted by science.

Data analysis is the next step. I wanted to see if any appeared fit to average. If your value is based on an average, more significant figures can be justified. If n = 10, 1 additional significant figure can be claimed; if n = 100, 2, etc.

I viewed all estimates from 2004 forward. 2005 has little data, so I compared 2005 & 2006 with 2004. [If they had been fit to average, I would have gone further back until data not fit to average was found.] The 2004 data was not fit to average with the 2005-2006 data. [Only one point from 2005 was included.]

Some of the 2006/5 data claimed significantly less variability of the result than others. That is, the accuracy claimed was significantly greater than the others. That indicates that the more recent data is more correct than 2004. The 2006/5 data could not be averaged [logically] with the other values. I averaged those with the 2006/5 data – those with the significantly greater accuracy [smaller +/- values].

The average value of the Hubble constant was 72.95, exactly, or 72.950000 [n = 40]. No, my data isn’t enough for 8 significant figures, but the statistical sins are small.

That gives an age of the universe of 13,708,019,191.91919 [the last two digits, of course, are a repeat pattern] years. That agreed nicely with the 13.7 figure and can be rounded off to 13,708,020,000 years. See hello to the first 7 significant figure estimate of the age of the universe! [Do we believe those 7 significant figures are accurate? Well, not necessarily, but do you have a better one? As I said, I need a 7 significant figure estimate to correct the atheist cosmology, so I’m going to use it to do so. You’ll see that to 3 significant figures, it still comes out to 13.7, but you’ll see the difference.]

Where were we? Oh, yes. When did the CMB form? Not when did it emerge. [Normally referred to as the ‘Epoch of Last Scattering’ and normally given an age the varies between 300,000 to 400,000 years after the big bang]. [As I’m sure you know, none of the opinions expressed here are original with me {With the exception of that 7 significant figure effort}. I read and report.]

Most discussions of the model don’t describe the nacent CMB. They go from a few minutes to the Epoch of Last Scattering in one step. One does. It focuses on the 10,000 year mark. At this time the creation of the H:He nuclei ratio has begun. Eventually, the energy density in the matter becomes larger than the energy density in radiation. Matter will then dominate in determining how the universe expands from this era on. The nacent CMB has been born — at 10,000 years.

At this time, the universe is a fog. The nacent CMB will take about 300,000 to 400,000 years to emerge from the fog. [The analogy is to clouds we see today. The light we see from clouds is from an epoch of last scattering, but the light isn’t born at that epoch. It came from the sun, right? The CMB is formed within the universe, at the 10,000 year mark, but still must leave the matter behind. The rate of movement of the CMB is the speed of light; the matter a bit slower.]

This cosmology state that the nacent CMB is the beginning of the universe. At 10,000 years. It’s the end of God’s creation process. How old is the universe?

13,708,020,000 years minus 10,000 years = 13,708,010,000 years.

Sure, that rounds off to 13.7 billion years, but we know the difference, right? In time, maybe we’ll have an estimate of the universe to 7 significant figures. Maybe not.

The point is, that this cosmology agrees with the atheist cosmology for more than 99.9999% of the atheist cosmology. That’s less than 1 part in 1 million. Surely, you’re not going to let a factor of 1 part in 1 million exclude God, are you?

Next time, we’ll discuss this result a bit.

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